According to Stephen Gregory in The Devil Behind the Mirror: Globalization and Politics in the Dominican Republic (U of California P, 2006), citizenship is a
“technology of power” that enables the tourism police to enforce a kind of social hygiene on the behalf of tourists, who do not want to be irritated by vendors or beggars. This exclusionary mechanism depends on the cédula, or national ID, which one must have in order to get formal work, such as selling goods in the zona playera. According to a recent report, more than a quarter of Dominicans – not to mention Dominicans of Haitian descent, none of whom qualify for citizenship by law – lack proper papers. In a country with few job opportunities even for the documented, the effects of this are devastating. [Emphasis added]
Gregory apparently also develops a notion of “imperial masculinity” which underpins sex tourism and, I would hazard to guess, a great deal more.
I have been quoting from Pablo Morales’ review of Gregory’s book in the March-April, 2007 NACLA Report on the Americas (40:2): 45-47.